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Illumination Robust Optical Flow Model Based on Histogram of Oriented Gradients

The materials provided here have been published on [8].

Abstract

The brightness constancy assumption has widely been used in variational optical flow approaches as their basic foundation. Unfortunately, this assumption does not hold when the illumination changes or for objects that move into a part of the scene with different illumination. This work proposes a variation of the L1-norm dual total variational (TV-L1) optical flow model with a new illumination-robust data term defined from the histogram of oriented gradients computed for two consecutive frames. In addition, a weighted non-local term is utilized for denoising the resulting flow field. Experiments with complex textured images belonging to different scenarios show results comparable to state-of-the-art optical flow models, although being significantly more robust to illumination changes.

Experimental Results

Figure 1 shows a real example that compares the performance of HOG, the census transform, the gradient constancy (GC) and the structure-texture decompensation ROF [6] using real images (2144 ◊ 1424)for the same scene with different global illuminations. The comparison is performed by computing the histogram of normalized errors between the same two features extracted from the pair of images. For the census transform, the error is computed based on the Hamming distance between the two descriptors (binary descriptors). In turn, the error generated for HOG and ROF is the difference between the resulting features. In addition, the similarity between the pair of input images is obtained for the gradient constancy. As shown in the figure, the gradient constancy yields the smallest average error(AE = 0.0146) among the different tested descriptors. However, HOG can detect the largest number of pixels with zero error among them, as well as a good average error (AE = 0.0184). Thus, HOG is likely to be advantageous for motion estimation.
some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text
(c) AE = 0.1595 (d) AE = 0.0184
some_text some_text
(e) AE = 0.0146 (f) AE = 0.0452
Fig. 1: (a-b) Two original images. Error histograms for (c) CT, (d) HOG, (e) GC, and (f) ROF.


Synthetic illumination

The variational optical flow model described has been tested with different features descriptors by using sequence GROVE2 from the Middlebury datasets with ground-truth by changing the illumination of the second frame as:

Equation


where Ii and Io are the input and output frames, respectively, m > 0 is a multiplicative factor, and γ > 0 is the gamma correction. The experiments are conducted in Matlab and the function uint8 is used for quantizing the values to 8-bit unsigned integer format.

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text
(c) (d)
Fig. 2: AEE and AAE for HOG, census transform and gradient constancy. Row 1: change of γ; row 2: change of m
Figure 2 shows a qualitative comparison of the average end-point error (AEE) and the average angular error (AAE) between the flow fields obtained with HOG, the census transform, both determined in a 3 ◊ 3 neighborhood, as well as the gradient constancy. The effects of different values of m and γ have individually been assessed by varying γ while keeping m = 1, and by changing m with γ = 1. As shown in figure 2, the gradient constancy is robust against small changes of both γ and m. In turn, HOG shows a higher robustness against both small and large changes of γ and m. In addition, the census transform yields adequate values for both AEE and AAE.

Real illumination and large displacement test

Furthermore, the proposed variational optical flow method based on the HOG descriptor is evaluated with eight real image sequences that include illumination changes and large displacements, as well as low-textured areas, reflections and specularities. Table 1 shows the AEE and bad pixels corresponding to four se- quences with illumination changes and large displacements calculated for the methods proposed in [1] , [2] , [3] , [4] , and [5] , in addition to the proposed method based on HOG, the census transform and the gradient constancy. In another experiment, the estimated flow fields with HOG (3 ◊ 3 and 5 ◊ 5) have visually been compared with the proposed optical flow method by using the data term based on the brightness constancy assumption, as well as the one based on the census transform. Figure 3 shows the estimated flow field for sequence 15, which includes illumination changes, as well as the error images and the error histograms. In addition, figure 4 shows the same information for sequence 181, which includes large displacements. Among the evaluated approaches, the optical flow model based on HOG yields the most accurate flow fields with respect to the state-of-the-art methods for real images of KITTI datasets that include both illumination changes and large displacements.

Table 1: Percentage of bad pixels and AEE for the state-of-the-art methods and the proposed method with four sequences from KITTI datasets: sequences 11, 15, 44 and 74, which include illumination changes with the occluded points ground truth.
Method Seq 44 Seq 11 Seq 15 Seq 74 Average
HOG(3 x 3) 21.45% (4.68) 32.54% (9.04) 22.30% (6.48) 53.79% (20.03) 32.52%
HOG(5 x 5) 23.23% (5.22) 29.92%(8.90) 24.90% (7.64) 52.74%(19.79) 32.70%
Gradient Constancy 29.25% (9.54) 35.72%(10.91) 26.41% (8.47) 59.20% (23.07) 37.64%
OFH 2011 [5] 23.22% (5.11) 37.26% (12.47) 32.20% (9.06) 62.90% (24.00) 38.89%
Census(5 x 5) 35.23% (12.74) 33.93% (9.75) 29.04% (8.70) 57.57% (20.80) 38.94%
Census(3 x 3) 29.55% (10.22) 37.54% (11.14) 33.74% (9.11) 57.43% (20.53) 39.56%
SRB [3] 26.58%(4.67) 40.61% (13.76) 32.85% (9.72) 62.94% (24.27) 40.74%
SRBF [3] 31.83% (5.62) 40.34% (13.96) 35.13% (12.17) 64.89% (24.64) 43.05%
BW [1] 32.44% (5.19) 33.95% (8.50) 47.70% (12.40) 71.44% (25.15) 46.38%
HS [2] 42.96% (6.77) 38.84% (10.72) 58.08% (12.89) 82.14% (28.75) 55.50%
WPB [4] 49.09% (9.20) 49.99% (28.35) 67.28% (28.36) 88.67% (30.68) 63.76%


Table 2: Percentage of bad pixels and AEE for the state-of-the-art methods and the proposed method with four sequences from KITTI datasets: sequences 11, 15, 44 and 74, which include illumination changes with the non-occluded points ground truth.
Method Seq 44 Seq 11 Seq 15 Seq 74 Average
HOG(3 x 3) 9.98% (2.17) 18.53% (3.78) 8.40% (2.21) 46.99%(14.20) 20.98%
HOG(5 x 5) 11.35% (2.26) 15.54% ( 3.12) 10.40%(2.41) 45.76% (13.97) 20.76%
Gradient Constancy 16.78% (4.95) 19.43%(4.01) 11.97% (3.52) 53.13% (16.38) 25.33%
Census(5 x 5) 24.30% (7.96) 19.83% (5.06) 15.03% (3.41) 51.10%(15.14) 27.57%
OFH [5] 11.17% (2.44) 24.32% (6.48) 18.34% (3.63) 57.40% (17.25) 27.81%
SRB [3] 14.66% (2.44) 27.83% (6.43) 18.93% (4.05) ) 57.36% (17.36) 29.69%
Census(3 x 3) 18.26% (6.30) 24.05% (7.28) 20.30% (3.95) 57.43%(17.53) 30.01%
SRBF [3] 20.98% (3.29) 27.78% (6.73) 21.66% (4.53) 59.56% (17.52) 32.49%
BW [1] 22.38% (3.16) 20.54% (3.62) 36.85% (6.67) 67.22% (18.49) 36.75%
HS [2] 34.18% (4.61) 25.98% (6.79) 49.57% (7.95) 79.57% (21.55) 47.32%
WPB [4] 40.85% (5.88) 39.25% (18.75) 60.50% (17.63) 87.02% (24.09) 56.90%



Sequence 11

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text some_text Brightness Constrain
some_text some_text some_text Census 3x3
some_text some_text some_text Census 5x5
some_text some_text some_text HOG 3x3
some_text some_text some_text HOG 5x5
Fig. 1: (row 1) Two original images for sequence 15 of KITTI datasets. Resulting flow field, error image and error histogram for the proposed optical flow model with: (row 2) brightness constancy, (row 3) 3 ◊ 3 census transform, (row 4) 5 ◊ 5 census transform, (row 5) 3 ◊ 3 HOG, and (row 6) 5 ◊ 5 HOG



Sequence 15

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text some_text Brightness Constrain
some_text some_text some_text Census 3x3
some_text some_text some_text Census 5x5
some_text some_text some_text HOG 3x3
some_text some_text some_text HOG 5x5
Fig. 2: (row 1) Two original images for sequence 15 of KITTI datasets. Resulting flow field, error image and error histogram for the proposed optical flow model with: (row 2) brightness constancy, (row 3) 3 ◊ 3 census transform, (row 4) 5 ◊ 5 census transform, (row 5) 3 ◊ 3 HOG, and (row 6) 5 ◊ 5 HOG



Sequence 44

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text some_text Brightness Constrain
some_text some_text some_text Census 3x3
some_text some_text some_text Census 5x5
some_text some_text some_text HOG 3x3
some_text some_text some_text HOG 5x5
Fig. 3: (row 1) Two original images for sequence 15 of KITTI datasets. Resulting flow field, error image and error histogram for the proposed optical flow model with: (row 2) brightness constancy, (row 3) 3 ◊ 3 census transform, (row 4) 5 ◊ 5 census transform, (row 5) 3 ◊ 3 HOG, and (row 6) 5 ◊ 5 HOG



Sequence 74

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text some_text Brightness Constrain
some_text some_text some_text Census 3x3
some_text some_text some_text Census 5x5
some_text some_text some_text HOG 3x3
some_text some_text some_text HOG 5x5
Fig. 4: (row 1) Two original images for sequence 15 of KITTI datasets. Resulting flow field, error image and error histogram for the proposed optical flow model with: (row 2) brightness constancy, (row 3) 3 ◊ 3 census transform, (row 4) 5 ◊ 5 census transform, (row 5) 3 ◊ 3 HOG, and (row 6) 5 ◊ 5 HOG




Table 3: Percentage of bad pixels and AEE for the state-of-the-art methods and the proposed method with four sequences from KITTI datasets: sequences 117, 144, 147 and 181, which include large displacement with the occluded points ground truth.
Method Seq 147 Seq 117 Seq 144 Seq 181 Average
HOG(5 x 5) > 14.04% (2.90) 18.5% (12.27) 31.64% (12.86) 44.89% (33.72) 27.27%
HOG(3 x 3) 12.42% (2.87) 24.49% (14.99) 36.64% (14.40) 55.58% (42.97) 32.28%
OFH [5] 15.04% (4.96) 16.26% (4.33) 42.04% (15.01) 63.86% (50.52) 34.30%
Gradient Constancy 12.28% (3.93) 17.70% (10.81) 44.51% (18.67) 67.63% (58.40) 35.53%
SRB [3] 14.59% (4.85) 24.71% (9.74) 50.67% (19.03) 67.11% (47.70) 39.27%
SRBF [3] 14.79% (5.17) 24.41% (9.92) 50.66% (19.34) 68.41% (48.81) 39.57%
BW [1] 16.98% (5.17) 28.80% (7.86) 46.98% (16.85) 69.04% (45.27) 40.45%
Census(5 x 5) 13.98% (3.41) 27.33% (15.23) 47.68% (16.75) 73.85% (58.59) 40.71%
Census(3 x 3) 14.76% (3.54) 28.80% (15.20) 48.97% (16.83) 73.63% (58.58) 41.54%
HS [2] 24.84% (6.61) 43.24% (15.32) 51.89% (14.81) 74.11% (49.28) 48.52%
WPB [4] 32.72% (8.10) 46.80% (13.67) 52.25% (17.94) 76.00% (50.18) 51.94%


Table 4: Percentage of bad pixels and AEE for the state-of-the-art methods and the proposed method with four sequences from KITTI datasets: sequences 117, 144, 147 and 181, which include large displacement with the non-occluded points ground truth.
Method Seq 147 Seq 117 Seq 144 Seq 181 Average
HOG(5 x 5) > 6.41% (1.01) 9.09% (5.42) 16.82% (4.23) 27.48% (11.97) 14.95%
HOG(3 x 3) 5.80% (0.92) 17.04% (8.04) 22.56% (6.85) 41.44% (18.68) 21.71%
OFH [5] 8.03% (1.98) 9.09% (2.17) 29.62% (6.77) 52.32% (23.46) 24.76%
Gradient Constancy 7.13% (1.25) 9.70% (4.42) 32.25% (8.26) 57.21% (29.92) 26.57%
SRB [3] 7.55% (1.74) 18.11% (5.28) 39.55% (9.33) 56.51% (22.88) 30.43%
SRBF [3] 7.69% (1.97) 17.95% (5.29) 39.64% (9.59) ) 58.25% (23.78) 30.88%
BW [1] 10.07% (2.20) 22.25% (4.23) 35.01% (8.17) 59.05% (22.58) 31.60%
Census(5 x 5) 6.78% (0.95) 20.52% (9.82) 36.29% (7.71) 65.55% (31.26) 32.29%
Census(3 x 3) 6.63% (1.00) 21.85% (9.59) 37.49% (8.43) 65.29% (31.92) 32.82%
HS [2] 18.52% (3.38) 37.82% (9.77) 41.30% (7.32) 65.77% (23.40) 40.85%
WPB [4] 25.92% (4.43) 41.23% (9.18) 41.53% (8.94) 68.27% (25.96) 44.24%





Sequence 144

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text some_text Brightness Constrain
some_text some_text some_text Census 3x3
some_text some_text some_text Census 5x5
some_text some_text some_text HOG 3x3
some_text some_text some_text HOG 5x5
Fig. 5: (row 1) Two original images for sequence 15 of KITTI datasets. Resulting flow field, error image and error histogram for the proposed optical flow model with: (row 2) brightness constancy, (row 3) 3 ◊ 3 census transform, (row 4) 5 ◊ 5 census transform, (row 5) 3 ◊ 3 HOG, and (row 6) 5 ◊ 5 HOG



Sequence 147

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text some_text Brightness Constrain
some_text some_text some_text Census 3x3
some_text some_text some_text Census 5x5
some_text some_text some_text HOG 3x3
some_text some_text some_text HOG 5x5
Fig. 6: (row 1) Two original images for sequence 15 of KITTI datasets. Resulting flow field, error image and error histogram for the proposed optical flow model with: (row 2) brightness constancy, (row 3) 3 ◊ 3 census transform, (row 4) 5 ◊ 5 census transform, (row 5) 3 ◊ 3 HOG, and (row 6) 5 ◊ 5 HOG



Sequence 117

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text some_text Brightness Constrain
some_text some_text some_text Census 3x3
some_text some_text some_text Census 5x5
some_text some_text some_text HOG 3x3
some_text some_text some_text HOG 5x5
Fig. 7: (row 1) Two original images for sequence 15 of KITTI datasets. Resulting flow field, error image and error histogram for the proposed optical flow model with: (row 2) brightness constancy, (row 3) 3 ◊ 3 census transform, (row 4) 5 ◊ 5 census transform, (row 5) 3 ◊ 3 HOG, and (row 6) 5 ◊ 5 HOG



Sequence 181

some_text some_text
(a) (b)
some_text some_text some_text Brightness Constrain
some_text some_text some_text Census 3x3
some_text some_text some_text Census 5x5
some_text some_text some_text HOG 3x3
some_text some_text some_text HOG 5x5
Fig. 8: (row 1) Two original images for sequence 15 of KITTI datasets. Resulting flow field, error image and error histogram for the proposed optical flow model with: (row 2) brightness constancy, (row 3) 3 ◊ 3 census transform, (row 4) 5 ◊ 5 census transform, (row 5) 3 ◊ 3 HOG, and (row 6) 5 ◊ 5 HOG

KITTI dataset

The proposed variational optical flow method tested upon the widely used KITTI dataset optical flow. According to the KITTI (April 2013), the results of the proposed model with HOG (TVL1-HOG) have been evaluated, and it has been ranked in the 7 position out of 32 current state-of-the-art optical flow algorithms. The KITTI benchmark considers the bad flow vectors at all pixels that are above a spatial distance of 3 pixels from the ground truth. (TVL1- HOG) has average of 8.31% bad pixels, in turn the baseline methods [7] and [3] have 30.75% and 24.64%, respectively.

Rank Method Out-Noc Out-All Avg-Noc Avg-All
1 PR-Sf+E 4.08 % 7.79 % 0.9 px 1.7 px
2 PCBP-Flow 4.08 % 8.70 % 0.9 px 2.2 px
3 MotionSLIC 4.36 % 10.91 % 1.0 px 2.7 px
4 PR-Sceneflow 4.48 % 8.98 % 1.3 px 3.3 px
5 TGV2ADCSIFT 6.55 % 15.35 % 1.6 px 4.5 px
6 Data-Flow 8.22 % 15.78 % 2.3 px 5.7 px
7 TVL1-HOG 8.31 % 19.21 % 2.0 px 6.1 px
8 MLDP-OF 8.91 % 18.95 % 2.5 px 6.7 px
9 CRTflow 9.71 % 18.88 % 2.7 px 6.5 px
10 C++ 10.16 % 20.29 % 2.6 px 7.1 px

References

1. A. Bruhn and J. Weickert. Towards ultimate motion estimation: Combining highest accuracy with real-time performance. In ICCV, pages 749-755, 2005.
2. B. Horn and B. Schunk. Determining optical flow. In Artificial Intelligence, vol. 17, pages 185-203, 1981.
3. D. Sun, S. Roth, and M.J. Black. Secrets of optical flow estimation and their principles. In CVPR, pages 2432Ė2439. IEEE, 2010.
4. M. Werlberger, T. Pock, and H. Bischof. Motion estimation with non-local total variation regularization. In CVPR, pages 2464-2471.IEEE, 2010.
5. H. Zimmer, A. Bruhn, and J. Weickert. Optic flow in harmony. In IJCV, vol. 93(3): pages 368-388, 2011.
6. Rudin, L.I., Osher, S.J., Fatemi, E.: Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms. In Physica D, vol. 60, pages 259-268, 1992
7. C. Zach, T. Pock, H. Bischof, A duality based approach for realtime tv- l1 optical flow. In DAGM. pages 214-223, 2007
8. H. Rashwan, M. Mohamed, M. Garcia, B. Mertsching, and D. Puig. Illumination Robust Optical Flow Model Based on Histogram of Oriented Gradients. In: German Conference on Pattern Recognition, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013, Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

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